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Table 9 Summary of transformations performed prior to analysis

From: Syringomyelia: determining risk and protective factors in the conformation of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dog

Variable name Transformation
Palpebral aperture Measurement between lateral canthi (M9) minus that of medial canthi of eyes (M10).
Eye separation relative to cranium length Cranial length (M2) divided by distance between medial canthus of each eye (M10).
Rostrocaudal doming Length across the top of the cranium (M3) divided by length of cranium (M2)
Lateral doming Width across the top of the cranium directly behind the zygomatic arches (M5) divided by the width of the cranium at that point (M6).
Zygomatic arch deviation from cranium Width over both zygomatic arches at the widest point (M7) minus the width of the cranium directly caudal to zygomatic arches (M6). This is then divided by the width over the zygomatic arches (M7).
Cephalic index The width of the cranium (M6) (Figure 10; yellow) divided by its length (M2) (Figure 10; red).
Craniofacial index (typically referred to as cephalic index in dogs) The width of the cranium (M6) (Figure 10; yellow) divided by length of cranium and muzzle (M1) (Figure 10; blue).