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Table 1 Demographic comparison between two breed groups of 600 extreme brachycephalic (Bulldog, French Bulldog, Pug) and 600 moderate and non-brachycephalic dogs (moderate: Yorkshire Terrier, non-brachycephalic: Border Terrier and West Highland White Terrier) attending primary-care veterinary practices in England (200 dogs of each breed type)

From: Epidemiological associations between brachycephaly and upper respiratory tract disorders in dogs attending veterinary practices in England

Variable Category Extreme brachycephalic No. (%) Moderate and non-brachycephalic No. (%) Overall P-value
Sex/neuter Female entire 236 (40.0) 160 (26.7) 396 (33.3) <0.001
  Female neutered 43 (7.3) 115 (19.2) 158 (13.3)  
  Male entire 269 (45.6) 211 (35.2) 480 (40.3)  
  Male neutered 42 (7.1) 114 (19.0) 156 (13.1)  
Insured Insured 103 (17.2) 159 (26.5) 262 (21.8) <0.001
  Not insured 497 (82.8) 441 (73.5) 938 (78.2)  
Bodyweight (kg): Median (IQRa, range)   12.4 (9.5–24.2, 1.6–41.0) 8.7 (5.9–10.5, 1.5–20.7) 9.7 (7.6–12.2, 1.5–41.0) <0.001
Age (years) at final EPRb: Median (IQRa, range)   1.5 (0.4–3.5, 0.0–14.0) 5.5 (2.5–10.2, 0.0–18.2) 3.1 (1.0–7.1, 0.0–18.2) <0.001
Time in study (years): Median (IQRa, range)   0.2 (0.0–1.1, 0.0–4.3) 0.9 (0.0–2.4, 0.0–5.0) 0.4 (0.0–1.8, 0.0–5.0) <0.001
  1. a IQR interquartile range
  2. b EPR electronic patient record