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Table 2 Descriptive and univariable logistic regression results for risk factors associated with patellar luxation diagnosis in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England

From: The epidemiology of patellar luxation in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England

Variable Category Case No. (%) Non-case No. (%) Odds ratio 95 % CI P-value
Purebred status Crossbred 174 (20.4) 46291 (22.5) Base   
  Purebred 680 (79.6) 159205 (77.5) 1.1 1.0–1.3 0.133
Common breed-types Crossbred 174 (20.4) 46291 (22.5) Base   
  Yorkshire Terrier 116 (13.6) 6481 (3.2) 4.8 3.8–6.0 <0.001
  Chihuahua 70 (8.2) 4323 (2.1) 4.3 3.3–5.7 <0.001
  Jack Russell Terrier 70 (80.2) 13097 (6.4) 1.4 1.1–1.9 0.013
  Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 52 (6.1) 4183 (2.0) 3.3 2.4–4.5 <0.001
  West Highland White Terrier 40 (4.7) 5025 (2.5) 2.1 1.5–3.0 <0.001
  Bichon 33 (3.9) 2686 (1.3) 3.3 2.2–4.8 <0.001
  Staffordshire Bull Terrier 26 (3.0) 16458 (8.0) 0.4 0.3–0.6 <0.001
  Pug 22 (2.6) 1933 (0.9) 3.0 1.9–4.7 <0.001
  Pomeranian 21 (2.5) 951 (0.5) 5.9 3.7–9.3 <0.001
  Lhasa Apso 20 (2.3) 1605 (0.8) 3.3 2.1–5.3 <0.001
  Shih-tzu 18 (2.1) 4053 (2.0) 1.2 0.7–1.9 0.501
  Bulldog 16 (1.9) 1728 (0.8) 2.5 1.5–4.1 0.001
  French Bulldog 16 91.9) 1230 (0.6) 3.5 2.1–5.8 <0.001
  Other breed-types 160 (18.7) 95452 (46.5) 0.4 0.4–0.6 <0.001
Kennel Club Breed Groups Not Kennel Club recognised 251 (29.4) 62010 (30.2) Base   
  Toy 354 (41.5) 23937 (11.6) 3.7 3.1–4.3 <0.001
  Utility 107 (12.5) 16872 (8.2) 1.6 1.2–2.0 <0.001
  Terrier 89 (10.4) 28772 (14.0) 0.8 0.6–1.0 0.030
  Gundog 26 (3.0) 38001 (18.5) 0.2 0.1–0.3 <0.001
  Hound 13 (1.5) 9134 (4.4) 0.4 0.2–0.6 <0.001
  Pastoral 7 (0.8) 15403 (7.5) 0.1 0.1–0.2 <0.001
  Working 7 (0.8) 11367 (5.5) 0.2 0.1–0.3 <0.001
Adult (>18 months) bodyweight (kg) <10.0 473 (55.4) 32,604 (15.9) 2.8 2.3–3.3 <0.001
  10.0–19.9 167 (19.6) 32,218 (15.7) Base   
  20.0–20.9 39 (4.6) 27,233 (13.2) 0.3 0.2–0.4 <0.001
  30.0–30.9 11 (1.3) 19,384 (9.4) 0.1 0.1–0.2 <0.001
  ≥40.0 11 (1.3) 9,409 (4.6) 0.2 0.1–0.4 <0.001
  Not recorded 153 (17.9) 84,780 (41.2) 0.4 0.3–0.4 <0.001
Breed relative bodyweighta Equal/Higher 283 (33.1) 55,494 (27.0) Base   
  Lower 418 (49.0) 65,355 (31.8) 1.3 1.1–1.5 0.003
  Not recorded 153 (17.9) 84,779 (41.1) 0.4 0.3–0.4 <0.001
Age category (years) (pre-existing cases included as non-recorded) <3.0 287 (33.6) 85665 (41.7) Base   
  3.0 – 5.9 200 (23.4) 42541 (20.7) 1.4 1.2–1.7 <0.001
  6.0 – 8.9 137 (16.0) 32179 (15.7) 1.3 1.0–1.6 0.021
  9.0 – 11.9 84 (9.8) 23819 (11.6) 1.1 0.8–1.3 0.680
  ≥12.0 41 (4.8) 20901 (10.2) 0.6 0.4–0.8 0.001
  Not recorded 105 (12.3) 523 (0.3) 59.9 47.2–76.1 <0.001
Sex Male 385 (45.1) 106869 (52.2) Base   
  Female 468 (54.8) 97768 (47.8) 1.3 1.2–1.5 <0.001
Neuter status Entire 70 (8.2) 20650 (10.0) Base   
  Neutered 513 (60.1) 73594 (35.8) 2.1 1.6–2.6 <0.001
  Not recorded 271 (31.7) 111384 (54.2) 0.7 0.6–0.9 0.014
Insurance Non-insured 269 (31.5) 70794 (34.4) Base   
  Insured 375 (43.9) 47507 (23.1) 2.1 1.8–2.4 <0.001
  Not recorded 210 (24.6) 87327 (42.5) 0.6 0.5–0.8 <0.001
  1. Data on both pre-existing and incident patellar luxation cases are included
  2. Breed relative bodyweighta for maximum bodyweight recorded in dogs aged over 18 months compared to the mean bodyweight of all study dogs for breed and sex