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Table 4 Risk factors (signalment and physical factors) for intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) from univariable analysis (SD = standard deviation, OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval)

From: DachsLife 2015: an investigation of lifestyle associations with the risk of intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds

Variable Category Case Non-Case OR 95 % CI p
Age (continuous) Mean ± SD 96.50 ± 33.89 50.6 ± 38.1 1.03 1.02–1.03 <0.001
Age (categorical) 0–2 years 1 (0.2 %) 497 (99.8 %) 1 (base)   
2–4 years 18 (3.9 %) 443 (96.1 %) 20.19 2.69–151.89 0.004
4–6 years 50 (13.6 %) 318 (86.4 %) 78.15 10.74–568.51 <0.001
6–8 years 99 (33.0 %) 201 (67.0 %) 244.79 33.91–1767.01 <0.001
8–10 years 75 (41.9 %) 104 (58.1 %) 358.41 49.28–2607.02 <0.001
>10 years 67 (39.6 %) 102 (60.4 %) 326.46 44.81–2378.69 <0.001
Neuter status Neutered 231 (20.9 %) 874 (79.1 %) 1 (base)   
Entire 79 (9.1 %) 791 (90.9 %) 0.38 0.29–0.50 <0.001
Sex Male 154 (15.2 %) 861 (84.8 %) 1 (base)   
Female 156 (16.3 %) 804 (83.8 %) 1.09 0.85–1.38 0.511
Bodyweight (continuous) Mean ± SD 7.14 ± 3.23 7.32 ± 3.47 0.98 0.95–1.02 0.399
BCS 5 1 (10.0 %) 9 (90.0 %) 1 (base)   0.681
4 26 (19.7 %) 106 (80.3 %) 2.21 0.27–18.21 0.462
3 244 (15.4 %) 1341 (84.6 %) 1.64 0.21–12.98 0.641
2 28 (15.9 %) 148 (84.1 %) 1.70 0.21–13.98 0.620
1 11 (18.6 %) 48 (81.4 %) 2.06 0.24–18.02 0.513
BLHW (categories) <1.5 95 (14.2 %) 575 (85.8 %) 1 (base)   0.744
1.5–1.7 76 (15.6 %) 412 (84.4 %) 1.12 0.81–1.55 0.509
1.7–1.9 49 (16.8 %) 242 (83.2 %) 1.23 0.84–1.79 0.289
>1.9 59 (15.6 %) 319 (84.4 %) 1.12 0.79–1.59 0.530
TLHW (categories) <1.8 73 (17.9 %) 334 (82.1 %) 1 (base)   0.223
1.8–2.0 91 (13.3 %) 594 (86.7 %) 0.70 0.50–0.98 0.038
2.0–2.2 58 (15.7 %) 312 (84.3 %) 0.85 0.58–1.24 0.401
>2.2 57 (15.6 %) 308 (84.4 %) 0.85 0.58–1.24 0.390