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Table 5 Risk factors (exercise, environment and activity factors) for intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) from univariable analysis (OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval)

From: DachsLife 2015: an investigation of lifestyle associations with the risk of intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds

Variable Category Case Non-Case OR 95 % CI p
Less than 30 min exercise No 231 (13.8 %) 1440 (86.2 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 77 (28.5 %) 193 (71.5 %) 2.49 1.85–3.52 <0.001
30 min–1 h exercise No 212 (15.3 %) 1176 (84.7 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 96 (17.4 %) 457 (82.6 %) 1.17 0.90–1.52 0.257
Over 1 h exercise No 176 (21.2 %) 654 (78.8 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 132 (11.9 %) 979 (88.1 %) 0.50 0.39–0.64 <0.001
Off lead exercise No 204 (17.1 %) 992 (82.9 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 103 (13.9 %) 640 (96.1 %) 0.78 0.61–1.01 0.061
Jogging/cycling with owner No 307 (16.0 %) 1616 (84.0 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 1 (5.9 %) 16 (94.1 %) 0.33 0.04–2.49 0.282
Collar use Neither 23 (18.4 %) 102 (81.6 %) 1 (base)   0.016
Both 1 (10.0 %) 9 (90.0 %) 0.49 0.06–4.08 0.512
Collar 172 (13.7 %) 1086 (86.3 %) 0.70 0.44–1.14 0.149
Harness 107 (19.3 %) 447 (80.7 %) 1.06 0.64–1.75 0.815
Pulling No pull 217 (15.8 %) 1159 (84.2 %) 1 (base)   
Harness pull 35 (17.6 %) 164 (82.4 %) 1.14 0.77–1.69 0.514
Collar pull 39 (12.5 %) 273 (87.5 %) 0.76 0.53–1.10 0.147
Obedience No 237 (15.5 %) 1290 (84.5 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 63 (15.1 %) 353 (84.9 %) 0.97 0.72–1.31 0.851
Participation in group walks No 260 (15.9 %) 1378 (84.1 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 40 (13.1 %) 265 (86.9 %) 0.80 0.56–1.14 0.222
Showing at fun/charity/exemption shows No 276 (16.1 %) 1434 (83.9 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 24 (10.3 %) 209 (89.7 %) 0.59 0.38–0.93 0.022
Showing at Kennel Club Championship shows No 291 (16.9 %) 1431 (83.1 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 9 (4.1 %) 212 (95.9 %) 0.21 0.11–0.41 <0.001
Showing at Kennel Club Open shows No 289 (16.7 %) 1441 (83.3 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 11 (5.2 %) 202 (94.8 %) 0.27 0.15–0.51 <0.001
Canine Good Citizen No 286 (16.1 %) 1485 (83.9 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 14 (8.1 %) 158 (91.9 %) 0.46 0.26–0.81 0.007
Mini agility No 288 (15.5 %) 1574 (84.5 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 12 (14.8 %) 69 (85.2 %) 0.87 0.51–1.78 0.874
Earth/Working trials No 292 (15.5 %) 1596 (84.5 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 8 (14.5 %) 47 (85.5 %) 0.93 0.44–1.99 0.852
Therapy dog (Pets as Therapy) No 295 (15.5 %) 1609 (84.5 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 5 (12.8 %) 34 (87.2 %) 0.80 0.31–2.07 0.648
Heelwork to music No 299 (15.4 %) 1638 (84.6 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 1 (16.7 %) 5 (83.3 %) 1.10 0.13–9.41 0.934
Cani-X No 298 (15.4 %) 1640 (84.6 %) 1 (base)   
Yes 2 (40.0 %) 3 (60.0 %) 0.16 0.61–22.05 0.155
Spend day Dog play pen 1 (10.0 %) 9 (90.0 %) 1 (base)   0.724
House – no restriction 152 (16.1 %) 791 (83.9 %) 1.73 0.22–13.75 0.605
House – restrictions 144 (15.9 %) 764 (84.1 %) 1.70 0.21–13.49 0.617
Outbuilding with run 0 (0 %) 8 (100.0 %) 0.00 0.999
Outdoor/farm/garden 4 (9.1 %) 40 (90.9 %) 0.90 0.09–9.05 0.929
Kennel and run 0 (0 %) 24 (100.0 %) 0.00 0.998
Outbuilding no run 0 (0 %) 3 (100 %) 0.00 0.999
Dog cage/crate 9 (26.5 %) 25 (73.5 %) 3.24 0.36–29.30 0.295
Other dog company Only dog 112 (16.4 %) 573 (83.6 %) 1 (base)   0.350
One other Dachshund 85 (17.9 %) 391 (82.1 %) 1.11 0.82–1.52 0.501
One non-Dachshund 25 (12.3 %) 178 (87.7 %) 0.72 0.45–1.14 0.164
2 or more Dachshunds 54 (14.6 %) 315 (85.4 %) 0.88 0.62–1.25 0.466
2 or more non Dachshunds 34 (14.0 %) 208 (86.0 %) 0.84 0.55–1.23 0.399
Stairs Up and down flight of stairs each day 90 (12.3 %) 641 (87.7 %) 1 (base)   0.005
No stairs each day 116 (17.0 %) 567 (83.0 %) 1.46 1.10–1.96 0.013
One step in/out of house each day 104 (18.5 %) 457 (81.5 %) 1.62 1.19–2.20 0.002
Furniture jump Yes 138 (10.4 %) 1194 (89.6 %) 1 (base)   
No 172 (26.7 %) 471 (73.3 %) 3.16 2.47–4.05 <0.001
Activity level Not at all active 20 (37.7 %) 33 (62.3 %) 1 (base)   <0.001
Highly active 44 (7.8 %) 517 (92.2 %) 0.140 0.07–0.27 <0.001
Moderately active 133 (13.8 %) 832 (86.2 %) 0.264 1.45–0.47 <0.001
Mildly active 113 (28.6 %) 282 (71.4 %) 0.661 0.36–1.20 0.174