Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive and univariable logistic regression results

From: Corneal ulcerative disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in England: epidemiology and clinical management

Variable Category Case No. (%) Non-case No. (%) Odds ratio 95% CIa P-value
Purebred status Crossbred 88 (10.55) 23243 (22.49) Base   
Purebred 746 (89.45) 80109 (77.51) 2.46 1.97–3.07 < 0.001
Common breeds Crossbreed 88 (10.55) 23241 (22.48) Base   
Pug 55 (6.59) 960 (0.93) 15.13 10.74–21.32 < 0.001
Boxer 69 (8.27) 1317 (1.27) 13.84 10.05–19.06 < 0.001
Shih Tzu 70 (8.39) 1961 (1.90) 9.43 6.86–12.95 < 0.001
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 58 (6.95) 2274 (2.20) 6.74 4.82–9.41 < 0.001
Bulldog 19 (2.28) 768 (0.74) 6.53 3.96–10.78 < 0.001
King Charles Spaniel 11 (1.32) 485 (0.47) 5.99 3.18–11.28 < 0.001
Lhasa Apso 19 (2.28) 873 (0.84) 5.75 3.48–9.48 < 0.001
French Bulldog 12 (1.44) 630 (0.61) 5.03 2.74–9.24 < 0.001
West Highland White Terrier 28 (3.36) 2831 (2.74) 2.61 1.70–4.00 < 0.001
Staffordshire Bull Terrier 66 (7.91) 6797 (6.57) 2.56 1.86–3.53 < 0.001
Cocker Spaniel 37 (4.44) 4197 (4.06) 2.33 1.58–3.42 < 0.001
English Springer Spaniel 19 (2.28) 2191 (2.12) 2.29 1.39–3.77 0.001
Border Terrier 11 (1.32) 1316 (1.27) 2.21 1.18–4.14 0.014
Chihuahua 17 (2.04) 2206 (2.13) 2.04 1.21–3.43 0.008
Yorkshire Terrier 24 (2.88) 3330 (3.22) 1.90 1.21–2.99 0.005
Jack Russell Terrier 41 (4.92) 6658 (6.44) 1.63 1.12–2.36 0.010
Border Collie 12 (1.44) 2795 (2.70) 1.13 0.62–2.08 0.684
Labrador Retriever 24 (2.88) 9517 (9.20) 0.67 0.42–1.05 0.078
Other purebreds 154 (18.47) 29052 (28.10) 1.40 1.08–1.82 0.012
Kennel Club Breed Groups Breed not Kennel Club recognised 139 (16.67) 31185 (30.16) Base   
Toy 188 (22.54) 12413 (12.00) 3.40 2.73–4.24 < 0.001
Utility 151 (18.11) 8681 (8.40) 3.90 3.10–4.92 < 0.001
Terrier 120 (14.39) 13537 (13.09) 1.99 1.56–2.54 < 0.001
Gundog 101 (12.11) 20551 (19.88) 1.10 0.85–1.43 0.456
Hound 22 (2.64) 4525 (4.38) 1.09 0.69–1.71 0.706
Pastoral 31 (3.72) 7467 (7.22) 0.93 0.63–1.38 0.721
Working 82 (9.83) 5040 (4.87) 3.65 2.77–4.80 < 0.001
Spaniel-brachycephalic Crossbred 88 (10.6) 23243 (22.5) Base   
Spaniel 130 (15.6) 9887 (9.6) 3.47 2.65–4.56 < 0.001
Brachycephalic 239 (28.7) 6124 (5.9) 10.31 8.06–13.18 < 0.001
Purebred other 377 (45.2) 64098 (62.0) 1.55 1.23–1.96 < 0.001
Adult (> 9 months) bodyweight (kg) < 10.0 264 (31.65) 24731 (23.92) 1.63 1.28–2.08 < 0.001
10.0–19.9 245 (29.38) 23047 (22.29) 1.59 1.25–2.03 < 0.001
20.0–29.9 145 (17.39) 18302 (17.70) 1.20 0.92–1.56 0.186
30.0–39.9 88 (10.55) 13301 (12.86) Base   
≥ 40.0 32 (3.84) 6564 (6.35) 0.70 0.46–1.07 0.097
Not available 60 (7.19) 17454 (16.88) 0.58 0.43–0.79 0.001
Bodyweight relative to breed mean Equal/Higher 389 (46.64) 40713 (39.37) 1.12 0.97–1.29 0.114
Lower 372 (44.60) 43689 (42.25) Base   
Not recorded 73 (8.75) 18997 (18.37) 0.45 0.35–0.58 < 0.001
Age category (years) (pre-existing cases included as not-recorded) < 3.0 188 (22.54) 33817 (32.71) Base   
3.0–5.9 136 (16.31) 26381 (25.51) 0.93 0.74–1.16 0.504
6.0–8.9 232 (27.82) 20062 (19.40) 2.08 1.71–2.52 < 0.001
9.0–11.9 172 (20.62) 13307 (12.87) 2.33 1.89–2.86 < 0.001
≥ 12.0 106 (12.71) 9633 (9.32) 1.98 1.56–2.51 < 0.001
Not recorded 0 (0.00) 199 (0.19) ~ ~ ~
Sex Female 382 (45.80) 49180 (47.68) Base   
Male 452 (54.20) 53933 (52.29) 1.08 0.94–1.24 0.276
Not recorded 0 (0.00) 26 (0.03) ~ ~ ~
Neuter status Entire 123 (14.75) 13875 (13.42) Base   
Neutered 436 (52.28) 46050 (44.54) 1.07 0.87–1.31 0.521
Not recorded 275 (32.97) 43474 (42.04) 0.71 0.58–0.88 0.002
Insurance Non-insured 190 (22.78) 29062 (28.11) Base   
Insured 331 (39.69) 31840 (30.79) 1.59 1.33–1.90 < 0.001
Not recorded 313 (37.53) 42497 (41.10) 1.13 0.94–1.35 0.197
  1. Descriptive and univariable logistic regression results for risk factors associated with diagnosis of corneal ulcerative disease in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Percentages shown in brackets
  2. aCI confidence interval