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Table 3 Final multivariable logistic regression results

From: Corneal ulcerative disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in England: epidemiology and clinical management

Variable Category Odds ratio 95% CIa P-value
Common breeds Crossbreed Base   
Pug 19.05 13.45–26.97 < 0.001
Boxer 12.12 8.77–16.76 < 0.001
Shih Tzu 10.04 7.30–13.80 < 0.001
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 6.10 4.36–8.54 < 0.001
Bulldog 7.76 4.69–12.84 < 0.001
King Charles Spaniel 5.62 2.98–10.62 < 0.001
Lhasa Apso 4.97 3.01–8.22 < 0.001
French Bulldog 7.25 3.92–13.42 < 0.001
West Highland White Terrier 2.05 1.34–3.15 0.001
Staffordshire Bull Terrier 2.50 1.81–3.45 < 0.001
Cocker Spaniel 2.14 1.45–3.15 < 0.001
English Springer Spaniel 1.93 1.17–3.19 0.010
Border Terrier 2.00 1.06–3.75 0.032
Chihuahua 2.54 1.50–4.28 < 0.001
Yorkshire Terrier 1.78 1.13–2.80 0.013
Jack Russell Terrier 1.45 1.00–2.11 0.050
Border Collie 0.96 0.53–1.77 0.907
Labrador Retriever 0.57 0.36–0.90 0.016
Other purebreds 1.30 1.00–1.69 0.052
Age category (years) (pre-existing cases included as non-recorded) < 3.0 Base   
3.0–5.9 0.96 0.76–1.21 0.724
6.0–8.9 2.24 1.82–2.75 < 0.001
9.0–11.9 2.78 2.23–3.47 < 0.001
≥ 12.0 2.74 2.13–3.53 < 0.001
Not recorded ~   
Insurance Non-insured Base   
Insured 1.6 1.33–1.92 < 0.001
Not recorded 1.27 1.06–1.54 0.012
  1. Final multivariable logistic regression model for risk factors associated with diagnosis of corneal ulcerative disease in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England
  2. aCI confidence interval