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Table 1 Descriptive and univariable logistic regression results for risk factors associated with lipoma diagnosis in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in the VetCompass™ Programme in the UK

From: Lipoma in dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK: prevalence and breed associations

Variable Category Case No. (%) Control No. (%) Odds ratio 95% CIa Category P-value Variable P-value
Purebred status Crossbred 757 (0.81) 92,149 (99.19) Base    <  0.001
Purebred 2004 (0.70) 282,634 (99.30) 0.86 0.79–0.94 0.001  
Breed Crossbred 757 (0.81) 92,149 (99.19) Base    <  0.001
Weimaraner 39 (3.06) 1237 (96.94) 3.84 2.77–5.32 <  0.001  
Dobermann Pinscher 35 (2.63) 1294 (97.37) 3.29 2.34–4.64 <  0.001  
German Pointer 19 (1.97) 944 (98.03) 2.45 1.55–3.88 <  0.001  
Springer Spaniel 182 (1.96) 9118 (98.04) 2.43 2.06–2.86 <  0.001  
Labrador Retriever 545 (1.95) 27,387 (98.05) 2.42 2.17–2.71 <  0.001  
Cairn Terrier 22 (1.74) 1243 (98.26) 2.15 1.40–3.30 <  0.001  
Border Collie 112 (1.09) 10,150 (98.91) 1.34 1.10–1.64 0.004  
Golden Retriever 52 (1.08) 4746 (98.92) 1.33 1.00–1.77 0.046  
Beagle 29 (1.02) 2802 (98.98) 1.26 0.87–1.83 0.225  
Miniature Schnauzer 33 (1.00) 3261 (99.00) 1.23 0.87–1.75 0.243  
Dalmatian 15 (1.00) 1481 (99.00) 1.23 0.74–2.06 0.424  
Cocker Spaniel 130 (0.98) 13,099 (99.02) 1.21 1.00–1.46 0.048  
Patterdale Terrier 19 (0.90) 2087 (99.10) 1.11 0.70–1.75 0.660  
Rottweiler 33 (0.75) 4340 (99.25) 0.93 0.65–1.31 0.665  
Border Terrier 29 (0.61) 4724 (99.39) 0.75 0.52–1.08 0.125  
Boxer 30 (0.57) 5276 (99.43) 0.69 0.48–1.00 0.049  
Other purebreds 307 (0.51) 60,029 (99.49) 0.62 0.55–0.71 <  0.001  
Jack Russell Terrier 107 (0.47) 22,826 (99.53) 0.57 0.47–0.70 <  0.001  
Staffordshire Bull Terrier 116 (0.44) 25,966 (99.56) 0.54 0.44–0.66 <  0.001  
West Highland White Terrier 41 (0.40) 10,135 (99.60) 0.49 0.36–0.67 <  0.001  
Breed not recorded 4 (0.37) 1064 (99.63) 0.46 0.17–1.22 0.120  
Bichon 16 (0.30) 5402 (99.70) 0.36 0.22–0.59 <  0.001  
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 21 (0.24) 8684 (99.76) 0.29 0.19–0.45 <  0.001  
German Shepherd Dog 20 (0.18) 10,799 (99.82) 0.23 0.14–0.35 <  0.001  
Yorkshire Terrier 21 (0.16) 12,808 (99.84) 0.20 0.13–0.31 <  0.001  
Lhasa Apso 9 (0.15) 5996 (99.85) 0.18 0.09–0.35 <  0.001  
Shih Tzu 15 (0.12) 12,617 (99.88) 0.14 0.09–0.24 <  0.001  
Chihuahua 7 (0.07) 9755 (99.93) 0.09 0.04–0.18 <  0.001  
Pug 0 (0.00) 4428 (100.00) ~ ~ ~  
Kennel Club Breed Group Breed not Kennel Club recognised 906 (0.73) 123,756 (99.27) Base    <  0.001
Toy 78 (0.16) 47,485 (99.84) 0.22 0.18–0.28 <  0.001  
Utility 119 (0.31) 38,173 (99.69) 0.43 0.35–0.52 <  0.001  
Terrier 259 (0.53) 48,432 (99.47) 0.73 0.64–0.84 <  0.001  
Gundog 1016 (1.66) 60,116 (98.34) 2.31 2.11–2.53 <  0.001  
Hound 86 (0.64) 13,315 (99.36) 0.88 0.71–1.10 0.268  
Pastoral 173 (0.69) 25,034 (99.31) 0.94 0.80–1.11 0.489  
Working 124 (0.67) 18,472 (99.33) 0.92 0.76–1.11 0.367  
Adult (>  18 months) bodyweight (kg) <  10.0 200 (0.24) 83,327 (99.76) Base    <  0.001
10.0–19.9 666 (0.86) 77,090 (99.14) 3.60 3.07–4.22 <  0.001  
20.0–29.9 721 (1.25) 56,792 (98.75) 5.29 4.52–6.19 <  0.001  
30.0–39.9 697 (1.77) 38,609 (98.23) 7.52 6.42–8.81 <  0.001  
≥ 40.0 364 (1.73) 20,657 (98.27) 7.34 6.17–8.73 <  0.001  
Unrecorded 117 (0.12) 99,372 (99.88) 0.49 0.39–0.62 <  0.001  
Bodyweight relative to breed mean Lower 862 (0.56) 154,194 (99.44) Base    <  0.001
Equal/Higher 1787 (1.44) 122,132 (98.56) 2.62 2.41–2.84 <  0.001  
Unrecorded 116 (0.12) 99,952 (99.88) 0.21 0.17–0.25 <  0.001  
Age (years) <  3.0 years 24 (0.02) 142,327 (99.98) 0.11 0.07–0.18 <  0.001 <  0.001
3.0 - < 6.0 years 145 (0.15) 98,128 (99.85) Base    
6.0 - < 9.0 years 797 (1.23) 64,241 (98.77) 8.40 7.03–10.02 <  0.001  
9.0 - < 12.0 years 1091 (2.75) 38,600 (97.25) 19.13 16.08–22.75 <  0.001  
≥ 12.0 years 697 (2.48) 27,377 (97.52) 17.23 14.40–20.62 <  0.001  
Unrecorded 11 (0.21) 5174 (99.79) 1.44 0.78–2.66 <  0.001  
Sex Female 1310 (0.72) 181,347 (99.28) Base    <  0.001
Male 1454 (0.75) 103,177 (99.25) 1.04 0.97–1.12 0.282  
Not recorded 1 (0.08) 1323 (99.92) 0.10 0.01–0.74 0.024  
Neuter Entire 380 (0.27) 139,083 (99.73) Base    <  0.001
Neutered 1756 (1.04) 166,332 (98.96) 3.86 3.46–4.32 <  0.001  
Unrecorded 629 (0.89) 70,432 (99.11) 3.27 2.88–3.71 <  0.001  
Sex-Neuter Female-entire 172 (0.26) 65,611 (99.74) Base    <  0.001
Female-neutered 846 (1.01) 82,506 (98.99) 3.91 3.32–4.61 <  0.001  
Female-unrecorded 292 (0.87) 33,230 (99.13) 3.35 2.78–4.05 <  0.001  
Male-entire 208 (0.29) 72,573 (99.71) 1.09 0.89–1.34 0.387  
Male-neutered 910 (1.08) 83,707 (98.92) 4.15 3.52–4.88 <  0.001  
Male-unrecorded 336 (0.90) 36,897 (99.10) 3.47 2.89–4.18 <  0.001  
Unrecorded-unrecorded 1 (0.08) 1323 (99.92) 0.29 0.04–2.06 0.215  
Insurance Non-insured 249 (0.97) 25,364 (99.03) Base    <  0.001
Insured 661 (1.50) 43,293 (98.50) 1.56 1.34–1.80 <  0.001  
Unrecorded 1855 (0.60) 307,109 (99.40) 0.62 0.54–0.70 <  0.001  
  1. Row percentages shown in brackets. aCI confidence interval