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Table 1 Diagnostics and management techniques for dogs diagnosed with diabetes mellitus

From: Diabetes mellitus in dogs attending UK primary-care practices: frequency, risk factors and survival

  Number of cases (%)
(n = 409)
Diagnostic procedures (multiple tests allowed per dog)
 Urinalysis 310 (75.8%)
 Blood Glucose (BG) 356 (87.0%)
 Fructosamine 169 (41.3%)
 Blood (unspecified) 330 (80.7%)
 Othera 36 (8.8%)
 Diagnostic tests not recorded 17 (4.2%)
Blood glucose level at diagnosis
 Median (range) mmol/L 28.1 (12.2–51.7)
  < 20 mmol/L 34 (8.3%)
 20 to < 30 mmol/L 108 (26.4%)
 30 to < 40 mmol/L 83 (20.3%)
  > 40 mmol/L 23 (5.6%)
 Level unrecorded 161 (39.4%)
Ketotic at diagnosis
 Ketotic 134 (32.8%)
 Not ketotic 263 (43.8%)
 No record of assessing ketones 96 (23.5%)
Insulin treatment
 Dog started on insulin 362 (88.5%)
 Dog not started on insulinb 40 (9.8%)
 Insulin treatment unknown 7 (1.7%)
Insulin regime
 Once a day 67 (16.4%)
 Twice a day 224 (54.8%)
  > 2x daily injections 24 (5.9%)
 Constant Rate Infusion 13 (3.2%)
 Unable to determine initial insulin regime 81 (19.8%)
Cataracts present
 Cataracts diagnosed 134 (32.8%)
 Not recorded 275 (67.2%)
Hospitalised at diagnosis
 Dog hospitalised 66 (16.1%)
 No evidence of hospitalisation 343 (83.9%)
Number of days hospitalised
 Median (range) 0 (0–12)
 0 days 343 (83.9%)
 1–3 days 49 (12.0%)
 4+ days 17 (4.2%)
Referred for advanced management
 Dog referred 24 (5.9%)
 Not referred 385 (94.1%)
Management methods first 3 months (multiple methods allowed per dog) n = 361
Home blood glucose measurements 45 (12.5%)
Blood glucose curve practice 234 (64.8%)
Fructosamine 135 (37.4%)
Spot blood glucose 247 (68.4%)
Bloods (unspecified) 110 (30.5%)
Urinalysis 160 (44.3%)
Recommended diet change 149 (41.3%)
Otherc 128 (35.5%)
  1. Diagnostics and management for dogs aged 3 years and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in UK primary-care practices in 2016.
  2. a The majority of “other” tests (91.7%, 33 dogs) were imaging
  3. b Dogs not started on insulin included those where the owner opted for euthanasia, or specifically declined insulin treatment
  4. c “Other” management included 92.2% (118) fluid therapy, 10.2% [13] imaging