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Table 2 Descriptive and univariable logistic regression results

From: Diabetes mellitus in dogs attending UK primary-care practices: frequency, risk factors and survival

Variable Case (%) n = 409 Control (%) n = 818 Odds Ratio 95% CIa Category
P-value
Variable
P-value
Age Median (range) 10.00 (3.16–18.00) 7.12 (3.07–17.25)     < 0.001
Age at diagnosis
 3 to < 8 years 77 (18.8%) 464 (56.7%) Base    < 0.001
 8 to < 10 years 124 (30.3%) 153 (18.7%) 4.88 3.48–6.85 < 0.001  
 10 to < 13 years 165 (40.3%) 140 (17.1%) 7.10 5.11–9.88 < 0.001  
  > 13 years 43 (10.5%) 61 (7.5%) 4.25 2.68–6.72 < 0.001  
Sex   n = 817     0.732
 Female 200 (48.9%) 408 (49.9%) Base    
 Male 209 (51.1%) 409 (50.1%) 1.04 0.82–1.32 0.732  
Neuter status   n = 817     0.001
 Entire 120 (29.3%) 322 (39.4%) Base    
 Neutered 289 (70.7%) 495 (60.6%) 1.57 1.21–2.02 0.001  
Sex-neuter   n = 817     < 0.001
 Male-entire 49 (12.0%) 173 (21.2%) Base    
 Male-neutered 160 (39.1%) 236 (28.9%) 2.39 1.64–3.48 < 0.001  
 Female-entire 78 (19.1%) 149 (18.2%) 1.85 1.22–2.81 0.004  
 Female-neutered 122 (29.8%) 259 (31.7%) 1.66 1.13–2.44 0.009  
Weight: PUREBRED ONLY n = 253 n = 485     < 0.001
 Below breed mean 92 (36.4%) 246 (50.7%) Base    
 At or above breed mean 161 (63.6%) 239 (49.3%) 1.80 1.32–2.46 < 0.001  
Purebred status       0.051
 Crossbred 92 (22.5%) 226 (27.7%) Base    
 Purebred 317 (77.5%) 591 (72.3%) 1.15 1.00–1.32 0.051  
Breed ≥ 10 dogs and/or ≥ 5 case dogs       < 0.001
 Crossbred 88 (21.5%) 204 (24.9%) Base    
 Tibetan Terrier 9 (2.2%) 2 (0.2%) 10.43 2.21–49.27 0.003  
 Border Terrier 21 (5.1%) 10 (1.2%) 4.87 2.20–10.76 < 0.001  
 Cairn Terrier 5 (1.2%) 3 (0.4%) 3.86 0.90–16.52 0.068  
 Miniature Schnauzer 10 (2.4%) 6 (0.7%) 3.86 1.36–10.96 0.011  
 West Highland White Terrier 53 (13.0%) 32 (3.9%) 3.84 2.32–6.36 < 0.001  
 Yorkshire Terrier 30 (7.3%) 23 (2.8%) 3.02 1.66–5.50 < 0.001  
 Bichon Frise 11 (2.7%) 15 (1.8%) 1.70 0.75–3.85 0.203  
 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 16 (3.9%) 22 (2.7%) 1.69 0.84–3.36 0.138  
 Jack Russell Terrier 32 (7.8%) 51 (6.2%) 1.45 0.88–2.42 0.148  
 Border Collie 13 (3.2%) 23 (2.8%) 1.31 0.63–2.70 0.465  
 Cocker Spaniel 13 (3.2%) 26 (3.2%) 1.16 0.57–2.36 0.684  
 Purebred (other) 71 (17.4%) 269 (32.9%) 0.90 0.61–1.33 0.597  
 Labrador Retriever 25 (6.1%) 76 (9.3%) 0.76 0.45–1.28 0.304  
 Lhasa Apso 4 (1.0%) 13 (1.6%) 0.71 0.23–2.25 0.564  
 Staffordshire Bull Terrier 12 (2.9%) 56 (6.9%) 0.50 0.25–0.97 0.041  
 Springer Spaniel – unspecified 2 (0.5%) 12 (1.5%) 0.39 0.08–1.76 0.219  
 Golden Retriever 1 (0.2%) 9 (1.1%) 0.26 0.03–2.06 0.201  
 Boxer 1 (0.2%) 11 (1.35) 0.21 0.03–1.66 0.139  
 Shih-Tzu 2 (0.5%) 24 (2.9%) 0.19 0.04–0.84 0.028  
 Chihuahua 1 (0.2%) 14 (1.7%) 0.17 0.02–1.28 0.085  
 German Shepherd Dog 1 (0.2%) 14 (1.7%) 0.17 0.02–1.28 0.085  
 English Springer Spaniel 0 (0.0%) 10 (1.2%) . . .  
 Pug 0 (0.0%) 10 (1.2%) . . .  
Co-morbidities/medication
 Glucocorticoids: Yes 34 (8.3%) 28 (3.4%) 2.56 1.53–4.28 < 0.001 < 0.001
  No 375 (91.7%) 790 (96.6%) Base    
 Obesity: Yes 67 (16.4%) 79 (9.7%) 1.83 1.29–2.60 0.001 0.001
  No 342 (83.6%) 739 (90.3%) Base    
 Hyperadrenocorticism: Yes 26 (6.4%) 2 (0.2%) 27.7 6.54–117.29 < 0.001 < 0.001
 No 383 (93.6%) 816 (99.8%) Base    
 Pancreatitis: Yes 46 (11.3%) 1 (0.1%) 103.53 14.22–753.62 < 0.001 < 0.001
  No 363 (88.8%) 817 (99.9%) Base    
Insurance status   n = 817     < 0.001
 Insured 133 (32.5%) 113 (13.8%) 3.00 2.25–4.00 < 0.001  
 Not Insured 276 (67.5%) 704 (86.2%) Base    
Veterinary group       < 0.001
 A 3 (0.7%) 3 (0.4%) 0.82 0.16–4.10 0.805  
 B 147 (35.9%) 244 (29.9%) 0.49 0.37–0.66 < 0.001  
 C 55 (13.5%) 40 (4.9%) 1.12 0.71–1.77 0.621  
 D 201 (49.1%) 164 (20.1%) Base    
 E 3 (0.7%) 366 (44.8%) 0.01 0.002–0.02 < 0.001  
  1. Descriptive statistics and univariable logistic regression for variables associated with diabetes mellitus in dogs aged 3 years and older attending UK primary-care practices in 2016.
  2. a Confidence Interval