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Table 5 Univariable cox regression results

From: Diabetes mellitus in dogs attending UK primary-care practices: frequency, risk factors and survival

Variable Number (%) n = 409 Hazard Ratio 95% CIa Category
P-value
Variable
P-value
Age at diagnosis Median (range) 10.00 (3.16–18.00)     < 0.001
Age at diagnosis
 3 to < 8 years 77 (18.8%) Base    < 0.001
 8 to < 10 years 124 (30.3%) 1.05 0.70–1.59 0.805  
 10 to < 13 years 165 (40.3%) 2.25 1.54–3.29 < 0.001  
  > 13 years 43 (10.5%) 2.69 1.64–4.43 < 0.001  
Sex      0.277
 Female 200 (48.9%) Base    
 Male 209 (51.1%) 0.87 0.68–1.12 0.277  
Neuter status      0.001
 Entire 120 (29.3%) Base    
 Neutered 289 (70.7%) 0.62 0.47–0.81 0.001  
Sex-neuter      0.072
 Male-entire 49 (12.0%) Base    
 Male-neutered 160 (39.1%) 0.63 0.42–0.95 0.029  
 Female-entire 78 (19.1%) 0.92 0.58–1.47 0.738  
 Female-neutered 122 (29.8%) 0.74 0.48–1.12 0.155  
Purebred status
 Crossbred 92 (22.5%) Base    0.895
 Purebred 317 (77.5%) 0.99 0.86–1.15 0.895  
Weight: PUREBRED ONLY n = 253     
 Below breed mean 92 (36.4%) Base    0.459
 At or above breed mean 161 (63.6%) 0.88 0.63–1.23 0.459  
Breed (≥5 dogs per breed)
 Crossbred 88 (21.5%) Base    0.029
 Staffordshire Bull Terrier 9 (2.2%) 2.16 1.02–4.55 0.043  
 Cocker Spaniel 21 (5.1%) 1.61 0.85–3.07 0.147  
 Border Terrier 5 (1.2%) 1.40 0.80–2.43 0.239  
 Jack Russell Terrier 10 (2.4%) 1.20 0.72–1.99 0.487  
 Purebred (other) 53 (13.0%) 1.11 0.73–1.67 0.631  
 Labrador Retriever 30 (7.3%) 1.16 0.67–1.99 0.599  
 Tibetan Terrier 11 (2.7%) 0.81 0.33–2.02 0.653  
 West Highland White Terrier 16 (3.9%) 1.07 0.70–1.64 0.753  
 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 32 (7.8%) 0.67 0.32–1.41 0.291  
 Miniature Schnauzer 13 (3.2%) 0.82 0.35–1.89 0.636  
 Yorkshire Terrier 13 (3.2%) 0.63 0.36–1.09 0.097  
 Cairn Terrier 25 (6.1%) 0.46 0.11–1.89 0.281  
 Border Collie 71 (17.4%) 0.47 0.21–1.03 0.060  
 Bichon Frise 12 (2.9%) 0.43 0.17–1.07 0.069  
Co-morbidities/medication:
 Glucocorticoids Yes 34 (8.3%) 1.70 1.14–2.52   0.014
  No 375 (91.7%) Base   0.014  
 Obesity Yes 67 (16.4%) 0.67 0.47–0.96   0.023
  No 342 (83.6%) Base   0.023  
 Hyperadrenocorticism Yes 26 (6.4%) 1.33 0.82–2.15   0.263
  No 383 (93.6%) Base   0.263  
 Pancreatitis Yes 46 (11.3%) 1.11 0.76–1.61   0.593
  No 363 (88.8%) Base   0.593  
Insurance status
 Insured 133 (32.5%) 0.86 0.67–1.12   0.267
 Not Insured 276 (67.5%) Base   0.267  
Veterinary group      0.8437
 A 3 (0.7%) 1.08 0.15–7.71 0.941  
 B 147 (35.9%) 0.89 0.67–1.18 0.403  
 C 55 (13.5%) 1.12 0.77–1.63 0.549  
 D 201 (49.1%) Base    
 E 3 (0.7%) 1.09 0.27–4.41 0.903  
BG level at diagnosis      0.003
 Median (range) mmol/L 28.1 (12.2–51.7)     
  < 20 mmol/L 34 (8.3%) Base    
 20 to < 30 mmol/L 108 (26.4%) 0.93 0.55–1.57 0.774  
 30 to < 40 mmol/L 83 (20.3%) 1.53 0.90–2.61 0.118  
  > 40 mmol/L 23 (5.6%) 2.48 1.29–4.78 0.007  
 No evidence/record of BG level 161 (39.4%) 1.37 0.83–2.27 0.215  
Ketotic at diagnosis      0.095
 Ketotic 134 (32.8%) 1.15 0.86–1.54 0.332  
 Not ketotic 179 (43.8%) Base    
 No record of assessing ketones 96 (23.5%) 1.42 1.04–1.95 0.028  
Cataracts diagnosed within 3 months of diagnosis      0.500
 Cataracts diagnosed 134 (32.8%) 0.91 0.70–1.19 0.502  
 No mention of cataracts 275 (67.2%) Base    
Hospitalised at diagnosis      0.866
 Dog hospitalised 66 (16.1%) 0.97 0.69–1.36 0.867  
 No evidence of hospitalisation 343 (83.9%) Base    
Referred for advanced management      0.991
 Referred 24 (6.0%) 1.00 0.57–1.75 0.991  
 Not referred 378 (94.0%) Base    
Insulin treatment      < 0.001
 Treated with insulin 362 (88.5%) 0.08 0.05–0.12 < 0.001  
 Not treated 40 (9.8%) Base    
 Insulin treatment unknown 7 (1.7%) . . .  
Initial insulin regime n = 328     0.883
 Once daily injections 67 (20.4%) 0.91 0.62–1.32 0.612  
 Twice daily injections 224 (68.3%) Base    
  > 2x daily injections 24 (7.3%) 1.17 0.68–2.03 0.571  
 Constant Rate Infusion 13 (4.0%) 0.96 0.45–2.06 0.921  
MANAGEMENT (multiple methods per dog)
 Home blood glucose measurements: Yes 45 (11.0%) 1.06 0.74–1.52 0.733 0.735
  No 338 (89.0%) Base    
 Blood glucose curve practice: Yes 234 (57.2%) 0.51 0.39–0.65 < 0.001 < 0.001
  No 175 (42.8%) Base    
 Fructosamine: Yes 135 (33.0%) 0.65 0.50–0.85 0.001 0.001
  No 274 (67.0%) Base    
 Spot blood glucose: Yes 247 (60.4%) 0.66 0.51–0.85 0.001 0.001
  No 162 (39.6%) Base    
 Bloods (unspecified): Yes 110 (26.9%) 0.82 0.62–1.09 0.171 0.164
  No 299 (73.1%) Base    
 Urinalysis: Yes 160 (39.1%) 0.79 0.61–1.01 0.063 0.061
  No 249 (60.9%) Base    
 Recommended diet change: Yes 149 (36.4%) 0.53 0.41–0.70 < 0.001 < 0.001
  No 260 (63.6%) Base    
 Other (Fluid therapy/imaging): Yes 108 (26.4%) 1.07 0.81–1.41 0.632 0.632
  No 301 (73.6%) Base    
  1. Univariable cox regression survival analysis for dogs 3 years and older, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus at UK primary-care practices in 2016.
  2. a Confidence Interval