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Table 1 Descriptive and univariable logistic regression results for risk factors associated with incident diagnoses during 2013 of elbow joint disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in the VetCompass™ Programme in the UK. Column percentages shown in brackets. *CI confidence interval

From: Epidemiology and clinical management of elbow joint disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK

VariableCategoryCase No. (%)Non-case No. (%)Odds ratio95% CI*Category P-valueVariable P-value
Purebred statusCrossbred100 (16.26)110,124 (24.96)Base  <  0.001
Purebred515 (83.74)331,113 (75.04)1.721.38–2.12<  0.001 
BreedCrossbreed100 (16.23)110,124 (24.87)1.00  <  0.001
Labrador Retriever189 (30.68)30,894 (6.98)6.745.29–8.59<  0.001 
Rottweiler23 (3.73)4999 (1.13)5.073.22–7.98<  0.001 
Golden Retriever21 (3.41)5318 (1.20)4.352.71–6.97<  0.001 
German Shepherd Dog43 (6.98)11,848 (2.68)4.002.79–5.72<  0.001 
English Springer Spaniel22 (3.57)10,709 (2.42)2.261.43–3.590.001 
Other purebreds100 (16.23)82,952 (18.74)1.331.01–1.750.045 
Lhasa Apso8 (1.30)6773 (1.53)1.300.63–2.670.474 
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel11 (1.79)9924 (2.24)1.220.65–2.280.53 
Border Collie13 (2.11)11,834 (2.67)1.210.68–2.160.519 
Staffordshire Bull Terrier32 (5.19)31,897 (7.20)1.100.74–1.650.624 
Cocker Spaniel14 (2.27)15,458 (3.49)1.000.57–1.750.993 
Yorkshire Terrier11 (1.79)15,296 (3.45)0.790.42–1.480.463 
Unavailable1 (0.16)1502 (0.34)0.730.10–5.260.758 
Boxer4 (0.65)6075 (1.37)0.730.27–1.970.529 
Pug2 (0.32)5318 (1.20)0.410.10–1.680.217 
Jack Russell Terrier10 (1.62)27,407 (6.19)0.400.21–0.770.006 
West Highland White Terrier4 (0.65)11,838 (2.67)0.370.14–1.010.053 
Shih-tzu5 (0.81)14,882 (3.36)0.370.15–0.910.03 
Husky1 (0.16)4070 (0.92)0.270.04–1.940.193 
Bichon1 (0.16)6533 (1.48)0.170.02–1.210.076 
Chihuahua1 (0.16)11,709 (2.64)0.090.01–0.670.019 
Border Terrier0 (0.00)5379 (1.21)~~~ 
Kennel Club Breed GroupBreed not Kennel Club recognised121 (19.67)147,800 (33.50)Base  <  0.001
Toy31 (5.04)56,669 (12.84)0.670.45–0.990.045 
Utility33 (5.37)44,511 (10.09)0.910.62–1.330.614 
Terrier49 (7.97)57,913 (13.13)1.030.74–1.440.846 
Gundog256 (41.63)69,021 (15.64)4.533.65–5.63<  0.001 
Hound14 (2.28)15,556 (3.53)1.100.63–1.910.737 
Pastoral65 (10.57)28,414 (6.44)2.792.07–3.78<  0.001 
Working46 (7.48)21,353 (4.84)2.631.87–3.70<  0.001 
Adult (>  18 months) bodyweight (kg)<  10.036 (5.84)98,298 (22.20)Base  <  0.001
10.0 - < 20.089 (14.45)89,741 (20.27)2.711.84–3.99<  0.001 
20.0 - <  30.0115 (18.67)65,740 (14.85)4.783.28–6.95<  0.001 
30.0 - < 40.0187 (30.36)43,560 (9.84)11.728.20–16.75<  0.001 
≥ 40.0147 (23.86)23,153 (5.23)17.3412.04–24.97<  0.001 
Unavailable42 (6.82)122,247 (27.61)0.940.60–1.460.779 
Bodyweight relative to breed meanLower200 (32.47)179,134 (40.46)Base  <  0.001
Equal/Higher374 (60.71)140,861 (31.82)2.382.00–2.82<  0.001 
Unavailable42 (6.82)122,744 (27.72)0.310.22–0.43<  0.001 
Age (years)<  3.0 years108 (17.53)173,638 (39.22)Base  <  0.001
3.0 - < 6.0 years103 (16.72)112,371 (25.38)1.471.12–1.930.005 
6.0 - < 9.0 years142 (23.05)74,082 (16.73)3.082.40–3.96<  0.001 
9.0 - < 12.0 years149 (24.19)44,891 (10.14)5.344.16–6.84<  0.001 
≥ 12.0 years112 (18.18)31,666 (7.15)5.694.36–7.41<  0.001 
Unavailable2 (0.32)6091 (1.38)0.530.13–2.140.371 
SexFemale244 (39.61)213,489 (48.22)Base  <  0.001
Male372 (60.39)226,969 (51.26)1.431.22–1.69<  0.001 
Unavailable0 (0.00)2281 (0.52)~~~ 
NeuterEntire122 (19.81)174,753 (39.47)Base  <  0.001
Neutered360 (58.44)198,298 (44.79)2.602.12–3.19<  0.001 
Unavailable134 (21.75)69,688 (15.74)2.752.15–3.52<  0.001 
InsuranceNon-insured27,320 (6.17)41 (6.66)Base  <  0.001
Insured54,136 (12.23)182 (29.55)2.241.60–3.14<  0.001 
Unavailable361,283 (81.60)393 (63.80)0.720.53–1.000.050