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Table 4 Results for Purebred status and Kennel Club Breed Group after replacing the breed variable in the final breed-focused mixed effects multivariable logistic regression model (along with age, bodyweight relative to breed mean, sex, neutered and insurance status) and for Adult (> 18 months) bodyweight (kg) that replaced the breed and bodyweight relative to breed mean variables in the final breed-focused mixed effects multivariable logistic regression model (with age, sex, neutered and insurance status). These results report associations between these risk factors and a diagnosis of elbow joint disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in the VetCompass™ Programme in the UK. *CI confidence interval

From: Epidemiology and clinical management of elbow joint disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK

VariableCategoryOdds ratio95% CI*Category P-value
Purebred statusCrossbred1.00  
Purebred1.701.37–2.10<  0.001
Kennel Club Breed GroupBreed not KC-recognised1.00  
Gundog3.943.17–4.90<  0.001
Working3.002.13–4.23<  0.001
Pastoral2.541.87–3.43<  0.001
Hound1.060.61–1.840.843
Utility1.040.71–1.530.851
Terrier0.980.70–1.370.921
Toy0.760.51–1.120.164
Adult (>  18 months) bodyweight (kg)<  10.01.00  
10.0 - < 20.02.351.59–3.46<  0.001
20.0 - < 30.04.102.81–5.96<  0.001
30.0 - < 40.09.846.87–14.08<  0.001
≥ 40.015.0310.39–21.74<  0.001
Unavailable1.330.84–2.100.218