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Table 1 Descriptive statistics and univariable logistic regression results identifying demographic risk factors of osteosarcoma in UK dogs

From: Dog breeds and body conformations with predisposition to osteosarcoma in the UK: a case-control study

Variable P-Value for Variable Category Case No. (%) Non-case No. (%) OR* 95% CI** P-value for Category
Purebred Status < 0.001 Crossbred 300 (17.1) 197,549 (21.8) Base   
   Purebred 1429 (81.4) 703,601 (77.7) 1.34 1.18–1.51 < 0.001
   Purebred status unrecorded 27 (1.5) 4061 (0.4) 4.38 2.95–6.5 < 0.001
Breed < 0.001 Crossbred 300 (17.1) 197,549 (21.8) Base   
   Rhodesian Ridgeback 29 (1.7) 1495 (0.2) 12.77 8.70–18.76 < 0.001
   Rottweiler 139 (7.9) 7223 (0.8) 12.67 10.35–15.52 < 0.001
   Greyhound (Unspecified) 103 (5.9) 5511 (0.6) 12.31 9.82–15.42 < 0.001
   Great Dane 19 (1.1) 1258 (0.1) 9.95 6.23–15.86 < 0.001
   German Pointer 21 (1.2) 1578 (0.2) 8.76 5.61–13.68 < 0.001
   Mastiff (Unspecified) 35 (2.0) 3096 (0.3) 7.44 5.24–10.58 < 0.001
   Pinscher (Unspecified) 29 (1.7) 2566 (0.3) 7.44 5.07–10.92 < 0.001
   Lurcher 53 (3.0) 6016 (0.7) 5.8 4.33–7.78 < 0.001
   Breed not recorded 27 (1.5) 4061 (0.4) 4.38 2.95–6.50 < 0.001
   Golden Retriever 65 (3.7) 9785 (1.1) 4.37 3.34–5.72 < 0.001
   Collie (Unspecified) 13 (0.7) 1983 (0.2) 4.32 2.47–7.54 < 0.001
   Fox Terrier 5 (0.3) 1013 (0.1) 3.25 1.34–7.88 0.009
   Weimaraner 11 (0.6) 2414 (0.3) 3.00 1.64–5.48 < 0.001
   Standard Poodle 5 (0.3) 1128 (0.1) 2.92 1.20–7.08 0.018
   Labrador Retriever 260 (14.8) 59,925 (6.6) 2.86 2.42–3.37 < 0.001
   Akita (Unspecified) 8 (0.5) 2037 (0.2) 2.59 1.28–5.23 0.008
   Poodle (Unspecified) 4 (0.2) 1050 (0.1) 2.51 0.93–6.74 0.068
   Boxer 35 (2.0) 9438 (1.0) 2.44 1.72–3.47 < 0.001
   Scottish Terrier 5 (0.3) 1455 (0.2) 2.26 0.93–5.48 0.071
   German Shepherd Dog 65 (3.7) 21,360 (2.4) 2.00 1.53–2.62 < 0.001
   Tibetan Terrier 5 (0.3) 1870 (0.2) 1.76 0.73–4.27 0.210
   Hungarian Vizsla 5 (0.3) 1976 (0.2) 1.67 0.69–4.04 0.258
   American Bulldog 8 (0.5) 3225 (0.4) 1.63 0.81–3.3 0.171
   Cairn Terrier 6 (0.3) 2470 (0.3) 1.60 0.71–3.59 0.255
   Dogue de Bordeaux 7 (0.4) 3030 (0.3) 1.52 0.72–3.22 0.273
   Labradoodle 17 (1.0) 7595 (0.8) 1.47 0.90–2.40 0.120
   Alaskan Malamute 4 (0.2) 1915 (0.2) 1.38 0.51–3.69 0.527
   Dalmatian 5 (0.3) 2720 (0.3) 1.21 0.50–2.93 0.672
   English Springer Spaniel 30 (1.7) 20,198 (2.2) 0.98 0.67–1.42 0.908
   Whippet 7 (0.4) 4684 (0.5) 0.98 0.46–2.08 0.967
   Border Collie 29 (1.7) 22,403 (2.5) 0.85 0.58–1.25 0.412
   Bulldog (Unspecified) 4 (0.2) 3232 (0.4) 0.81 0.30–2.19 0.685
   Staffordshire Bull Terrier 63 (3.6) 53,934 (6.0) 0.77 0.59–1.01 0.058
   Other Purebred 223 (12.7) 206,227 (22.8) 0.71 0.60–0.85 < 0.001
   West Highland White Terrier 20 (1.1) 18,875 (2.1) 0.70 0.44–1.10 0.119
   Cocker Spaniel 25 (1.4) 33,073 (3.7) 0.50 0.33–0.75 0.001
   Beagle 6 (0.3) 8070 (0.9) 0.49 0.22–1.10 0.083
   Jack Russell Terrier 33 (1.9) 48,569 (5.4) 0.45 0.31–0.64 < 0.001
   Border Terrier 6 (0.3) 9651 (1.1) 0.41 0.18–0.92 0.030
   Bichon Frise 7 (0.4) 13,268 (1.5) 0.35 0.16–0.74 0.006
   Husky 4 (0.2) 8524 (0.9) 0.31 0.12–0.83 0.020
   Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 7 (0.4) 17,257 (1.9) 0.27 0.13–0.57 0.001
   French Bulldog 4 (0.2) 16,397 (1.8) 0.16 0.06–0.43 < 0.001
   Shar-Pei NA (NA) 3647 (0.4)    
   Cavachon NA (NA) 3535 (0.4)    
   Maltese NA (NA) 3248 (0.4)    
   Cavapoo NA (NA) 4035 (0.4)    
   Cockapoo NA (NA) 18,260 (2.0)    
   King Charles Spaniel NA (NA) 2813 (0.3)    
   Sprocker NA (NA) 3338 (0.4)    
   Miniature Poodle NA (NA) 2415 (0.3)    
   Boston Terrier NA (NA) 1799 (0.2)    
   Chow Chow NA (NA) 1002 (0.1)    
   Dachshund (Unspecified) NA (NA) 1692 (0.2)    
   Goldendoodle NA (NA) 1128 (0.1)    
   Jackapoo NA (NA) 1362 (0.2)    
   Jug NA (NA) 1967 (0.2)    
   Miniature Yorkshire Terrier NA (NA) 1560 (0.2)    
   Puggle NA (NA) 1173 (0.1)    
   Standard Dachshund NA (NA) 1133 (0.1)    
KC Breed Group < 0.001 Toy 26 (1.5) 131,897 (14.6) Base   
   Gundog 484 (27.6) 135,606 (15.0) 18.11 12.20–26.87 < 0.001
   Hound 164 (9.3) 31,364 (3.5) 26.53 17.54–40.13 < 0.001
   Not KC Recognised 390 (22.2) 263,616 (29.1) 7.51 5.05–11.16 < 0.001
   Pastoral 144 (8.2) 51,675 (5.7) 14.14 9.31–21.47 < 0.001
   Terrier 153 (8.7) 145,828 (16.1) 5.32 3.51–8.07 < 0.001
   Utility 46 (2.6) 102,627 (11.3) 2.27 1.41–3.68 0.001
Body mass (kg) < 0.001 < 10 89 (5.1) 213,321 (23.6) Base   
   10–19.9 435 (24.8) 167,774 (18.5) 6.21 4.95–7.81 < 0.001
   20–29.9 392 (22.3) 117,620 (13.0) 7.99 6.35–10.06 < 0.001
   30–39.9 522 (29.7) 69,856 (7.7) 17.91 14.30–22.43 < 0.001
   > 40 231 (13.2) 26,178 (2.9) 21.15 16.56–27.02 < 0.001
   Body mass Unrecorded 87 (5.0) 310,462 (34.3) 0.67 0.50–0.90 0.008
Age (y) < 0.001 < 3 101 (5.8) 329,270 (36.4) Base   
   3 to < 6 204 (11.6) 223,344 (24.7) 2.98 2.35–3.78 < 0.001
   6 to < 9 589 (33.5) 162,000 (17.9) 11.85 9.60–14.64 < 0.001
   9 to < 12 589 (33.5) 108,448 (12.0) 17.71 14.34–21.87 < 0.001
   > 12 188 (10.7) 69,726 (7.7) 8.79 6.90–11.20 < 0.001
   Age Unrecorded 85 (4.8) 12,423 (1.4) 22.31 16.71–29.78 < 0.001
Sex/Neuter Status < 0.001 Female Entire 41 (2.3) 233,772 (25.8) Base   
   Female Neutered 507 (28.9) 197,768 (21.8) 14.62 10.63–20.10 < 0.001
   Male Entire 59 (3.4) 259,460 (28.7) 1.30 0.87–1.93 0.202
   Male Neutered 574 (32.7) 209,982 (23.2) 15.59 11.35–21.4 < 0.001
   Sex Unrecorded 575 (32.7) 4229 (0.5) 775.24 563.91–1065.77 < 0.001
Dachshund Status < 0.001 Non-Dachshund-type 1426 (81.2) 696,999 (77.0) Base   
   Dachshund-type 3 (0.2) 10,288 (1.1) 0.14 0.05–0.44 0.001
   Dachshund Status Unrecorded 327 (18.6) 197,924 (21.9) 0.81 0.72–0.91 < 0.001
Spaniel Status < 0.001 Non-Spaniel-type 1360 (77.4) 630,349 (69.6) Base   
   Spaniel-type 69 (3.9) 76,938 (8.5) 0.42 0.33–0.53 < 0.001
   Spaniel Status Unrecorded 327 (18.6) 197,924 (21.9) 0.77 0.68–0.86 < 0.001
Chondrodystrophy Status   Non-Chondrodystriphic 1165 (66.3) 290,490 (32.1) Base   
   Chondrodystrophic 165 (9.4) 331,858 (36.7) 0.12 0.11–0.15 < 0.001
   Chondrodystrophy Unrecorded 426 (24.3) 282,863 (31.2) 0.38 0.34–0.42 < 0.001
Skull Shape < 0.001 Mesocephalic 982 (55.9) 452,296 (50.0) Base   
   Brachycephalic 106 (6.0) 166,883 (18.4) 0.29 0.24–0.36 < 0.001
   Dolichocephalic 341 (19.4) 75,770 (8.4) 2.07 1.83–2.35 < 0.001
   Skull Shape Unrecorded 327 (18.6) 210,262 (23.2) 0.72 0.63–0.81 < 0.001
  1. Legend: Descriptive statistics and univariable logistic regression results calculated using cases submitted to VPG Histology between 2008 and 2020, and controls enrolled in the VetCompass™ programme during 2016. Percentages represent percentage of the total study population. The breed percentages separated by case and non-case are listed in Supplementary Data Table S1. Results determine associations between demographic risk factors and osteosarcoma diagnosis in UK dogs. *OR Odds ratio **CI Confidence interval