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Table 8 Summary of measurements included in the study with landmarks

From: Syringomyelia: determining risk and protective factors in the conformation of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dog

Measurement (mm) Tool Point A Point B
M1 Callipers Occipital protuberance Medial nose-mouth transition
M2 Callipers Occipital protuberance Stop (point of transition from cranial to facial skeleton)
M3 Tape measure Occipital protuberance Stop
M4 Ruler Stop End of muzzle
M5 Tape measure Most rostral point caudal to zygomatic arch on one side Most rostral point caudal to zygomatic arch on the other side
M6 Callipers Most rostral point caudal to zygomatic arch on one side Most rostral point caudal to zygomatic arch on the other side
M7 Callipers Zygomatic arch on one side Zygomatic arch on the other side (the widest point)
M8 Callipers Occipital protuberance Point of wing of atlas
M9 Callipers Lateral canthus of one eye Lateral canthus of the other eye
M10 Callipers Medial canthus of one eye Medial canthus of the other eye
M11 Tape measure Most ventral point of thorax Ground
M12 Tape measure Tuber ischium of the pelvis Ground
M13 Tape measure Greater tubercle of the humerus Tuber ischium of the pelvis
M14 N/A Eye conformational abnormalities, including strabismus, exophthalmos and exotropia determined by observation when dog looking forwards, left and right (FigureĀ 9).