Samms S. German Shepherd Dog: A Comprehensive Guide to Owning and Caring for Your Dog. London: Kennel Club Books; 2003. 158 p.
The Kennel Club: Breed Information Centre. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/services/public/breed/. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Svartberg K. Shyness-boldness predicts performance in working dogs. App Anim Behav Sci. 2002;79
Benninger MI, Seiler GS, Robinson LE, Ferguson SJ, Bonél HM, Busato AR, et al. Three-dimensional motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65(5):544–51.
The Kennel Club: Breed registration statistics. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/registration/breed-registration-statistics/. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Anonymous: Celebrations – and controversy – at the 125th Crufts dog show. Veterinary Record 2016,178(12):281.
Australian National Kennel Council: ANKC National Registration Statistics. http://ankc.org.au/AboutUs/?id=1206. Accessed 23 June 2017.
American Kennel Club: Dog Breeds: This is the official list of all American Kennel Club dog breeds. http://www.akc.org/breeds/index.cfm. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Asher L, Diesel G, Summers JF, McGreevy PD, Collins LM. Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 1: disorders related to breed standards. Vet J. 2009;182(3):402–11.
Summers JF, Diesel G, Asher L, McGreevy PD, Collins LM. Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 2: disorders that are not related to breed standards. Vet J. 2010;183(1):39–45.
Bateson P. Independent inquiry into dog breeding. Cambridge: University of Cambridge; 2010.
Rooney N, Sargan D. Pedigree dog breeding in the UK: a major welfare concern? RSPCA: Horsham, West Sussex; 2008.
Gough A, Thomas A. Breed predispositions to disease in dogs and cats. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell: Chicester, West Sussex; 2010.
The Kennel Club: Breed Watch booklet. London: The Kennel Club; 2016. Available from: http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/media/341575/breed_watch_booklet.pdf. Accessed 23 June 2017.
The Kennel Club: Dog Health Group Annual Report. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/for-vets-and-researchers/dog-health-group-annual-report/. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Petazzoni M, Piras A, Jaeger GH, Marioni C. Correction of rotational deformity of the pes with external skeletal fixation in four dogs. Vet Surg. 2009;38(4):506–14.
Wahl JM, Herbst SM, Clark LA, Tsai KL, Murphy KE. A review of hereditary diseases of the German shepherd dog. J Vet Behav. 2008;3(6):255–65.
Witsberger TH, Villamil JA, Schultz LG, Hahn AW, Cook JL. Prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232(12):1818–24.
Dobson JM. Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs. ISRN Veterinary Science. 2013;2013(Article ID 941275):1–23.
Batchelor DJ, Noble P-JM, Cripps PJ, Taylor RH, McLean L, Leibl MA, et al. Breed associations for canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21(2):207–14.
Westermarck E, Saari SAM, Wiberg ME. Heritability of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in German shepherd dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24(2):450–2.
Holder AL, Price JA, Adams JP, Volk HA, Catchpole B. A retrospective study of the prevalence of the canine degenerative myelopathy associated superoxide dismutase 1 mutation (SOD1:c.118G > a) in a referral population of German shepherd dogs from the UK. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2014;1(1):10.
Zeng R, Coates JR, Johnson GC, Hansen L, Awano T, Kolicheski A, et al. Breed distribution of SOD1 alleles previously associated with canine degenerative Myelopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2014;28(2):515–21.
Kennedy LJ, O’Neill T, House A, Barnes A, Kyöstilä K, Innes J, et al. Risk of anal furunculosis in German shepherd dogs is associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Tissue Antigens. 2008;71(1):51–6.
Breit S, Künzel W. Breed specific osteological features of the canine lumbosacral junction. Ann Anat. 2001;183(2):151–7.
Ondreka N, Amort KH, Stock KF, Tellhelm B, Klumpp SW, Kramer M, et al. Skeletal morphology and morphometry of the lumbosacral junction in German shepherd dogs and an evaluation of the possible genetic basis for radiographic findings. Vet J. 2013;196(1):64–70.
Collins LM, Asher L, Summers JF, Diesel G, McGreevy PD. Welfare epidemiology as a tool to assess the welfare impact of inherited defects on the pedigree dog population. Anim Welf. 2010;19:67–75.
Vilson Å, Bonnett B, Hansson-Hamlin H, Hedhammar Å. Disease patterns in 32,486 insured German shepherd dogs in Sweden: 1995–2006. Vet Rec. 2013;173(5):116.
Egenvall A, Nødtvedt A, Penell J, Gunnarsson L, Bonnett BN. Insurance data for research in companion animals: benefits and limitations. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:42.
Summers J, O'Neill D, Church D, Thomson P, McGreevy P, Brodbelt D. Prevalence of disorders recorded in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2015;2(1):4.
O'Neill DG, Darwent EC, Church DB, Brodbelt DC. Demography and health of Pugs under primary veterinary care in England. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2016;3(1):1–12.
O'Neill D, Church D, McGreevy P, Thomson P, Brodbelt D. Approaches to canine health surveillance. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2014;1(1):2.
O'Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):1–16.
Rooney NJ, Sargan DR. Welfare concerns associated with pedigree dog breeding in the UK. Anim Welf. 2010;19:133–40.
Buckland EL, Corr SA, Abeyesinghe SM, Wathes CM. Prioritisation of companion dog welfare issues using expert consensus. Anim Welf. 2014;23(1):39–46.
Collins LM, Asher L, Summers J, McGreevy P. Getting priorities straight: risk assessment and decision-making in the improvement of inherited disorders in pedigree dogs. Vet J. 2011;189(2):147–54.
VetCompass: VetCompass: Health surveillance for UK companion animals. http://www.rvc.ac.uk/VetCOMPASS/. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Fatjo J, Amat M, Mariotti VM, de la Torre JLR, Manteca X. Analysis of 1040 cases of canine aggression in a referral practice in Spain. J Vet Behav. 2007;2(5):158–65.
The VeNom Coding Group: VeNom Veterinary Nomenclature. http://www.venomcoding.org. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Pearce N. Classification of epidemiological study designs. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41(2):393–7.
Epi Info 7 CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US): Introducing Epi Info 7. http://wwwn.cdc.gov/epiinfo/7. Accessed 23 June 2017.
Kirkwood BR, Sterne JAC. Essential medical statistics. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2003.
Agresti A, Coull BA. Approximate is better than “exact” for interval estimation of binomial proportions. Am Stat. 1998;52(2):119–26.
Abdi H. Bonferroni and Šidák corrections for multiple comparisons. In: Salkind NJ, editor. Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics. 3. Thousand Oaks; London: Sage; 2007. p. 103–7.
Downes M, Canty MJ, More SJ. Demography of the pet dog and cat population on the island of Ireland and human factors influencing pet ownership. Prev Vet Med. 2009;92(1–2):140–9.
Adams VJ, Evans KM, Sampson J, Wood JLN. Methods and mortality results of a health survey of purebred dogs in the UK. J Small Anim Pract. 2010;51(10):512–24.
Asher L, Buckland E, Phylactopoulos CL, Whiting M, Abeyesinghe S, Wathes C. Estimation of the number and demographics of companion dogs in the UK. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7(1):74.
Murray JK, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Roberts MA, Browne WJ. Assessing changes in the UK pet cat and dog populations: numbers and household ownership. Vet Rec. 2015.
Anonymous: Kennel Club to review vet checks for German shepherd dogs. Veterinary Record 2016,179(8):183–4.
Sandøe P, Kondrup SV, Bennett PC, Forkman B, Meyer I, Proschowsky HF, et al. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0172091.
Packer R, Murphy D, Farnworth M. Purchasing popular purebreds: investigating the influence of breed-type on the pre-purchase motivations and behaviour of dog owners. Anim Welf. 2017;26:191–201.
Clements D, Handel I, Rose E, Querry D, Pugh C, Ollier W, et al. Dogslife: a web-based longitudinal study of Labrador retriever health in the UK. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9(1):13.
Packer RMA, Hendricks A, Burn CC. Do dog owners perceive the clinical signs related to conformational inherited disorders as ‘normal’ for the breed? A potential constraint to improving canine welfare. Anim Welf. 2012;21(Supplement 1):81–93.
O'Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England. Vet J. 2013;198(3):638–43.
Galis F, Van Der Sluijs I, Van Dooren TJM, Metz JAJ, Nussbaumer M. Do large dogs die young? J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308B(2):119–26.
Greer KA, Canterberry SC, Murphy KE. Statistical analysis regarding the effects of height and weight on life span of the domestic dog. Res Vet Sci. 2007;82(2):208–14.
Patronek GJ, Waters DJ, Glickman LT. Comparative longevity of pet dogs and humans: implications for gerontology research. J Gerontol: Biol Sci. 1997;52(3):B171–B8.
Michell AR. Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationships with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease. Vet Rec. 1999;145(22):625–9.
Selman C, Nussey Daniel H, Monaghan P. Ageing: It’s a dog’s life. Curr Biol. 2013;23(10):R451–R3.
Fleming JM, Creevy KE, Promislow DEL. Mortality in North American dogs from 1984 to 2004: an investigation into age-, size-, and breed-related causes of death. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25(2):187–98.
Urfer SR, Gaillard C, Steiger A. Lifespan and disease predispositions in the Irish wolfhound: a review. Vet Q. 2007;29(3):102–11.
Salvin HE, McGreevy PD, Sachdev PS, Valenzuela MJ. The effect of breed on age-related changes in behavior and disease prevalence in cognitively normal older community dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. J Vet Behav. 2012;7(2):61–9.
Kraus C, Pavard S, Promislow DEL. The size-life span trade-off decomposed: why large dogs die young. Am Nat. 2013;181(4):492–505.
Hielm-Björkman AK, Kuusela E, Liman A, Markkola A, Saarto E, Huttunen P, et al. Evaluation of methods for assessment of pain associated with chronic osteoarthritis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222(11):1552–8.
Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Kolar LM, Klausner JS. Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999;214(9):1336–41.
Bergvall KE, Saevik BK, Saijonmaa-Koulumies L, Holm B, Holm L, Hedhammar A, et al. Demographics and clinical picture of nonseasonal canine atopic dermatitis – observations in 63 dogs. Vet Dermatol. 2002;13(4):211–29.
Griffin CE, DeBoer DJ. The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (XIV): clinical manifestations of canine atopic dermatitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001;81(3–4):255–69.
Kyriazis A. Canine hip dysplasia. Part I: Aetiopathogenesis & diagnostic approach. Hellenic J Companion Anim Med. 2016;5(1):37.
Genevois JP, Remy D, Viguier E, Carozzo C, Collard F, Cachon T, et al. Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France: a retrospective study. Vet Comp Orthopaed. 2008;21(1):21–4.
Sturaro E, Menegazzo L, Piccinini P, Bittante G, Carnier P, Gallo L. Prevalence and genetic parameters for hip dysplasia in Italian population of purebred dogs. Ital J Anim Sci. 2006;5(2):107–16.
Smith GK, Mayhew PD, Kapatkin AS, McKelvie PJ, Shofer FS, Gregor TP. Evaluation of risk factors for degenerative joint disease associated with hip dysplasia in German shepherd dogs, golden retrievers, Labrador retrievers, and Rottweilers. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219(12):1719–24.
Kathrani A, Werling D, Allenspach K. Canine breeds at high risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease in the south-eastern UK. Vet Rec. 2011;169(24):635.
Peiravan A, Allenspach K, Boag AM, Soutter F, Holder A, Catchpole B, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in major histocompatibility class II haplotypes are associated with potential resistance to inflammatory bowel disease in German shepherd dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2016;182:101–5.
German AJ. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr. 2006;136(7):1940S–6S.
Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Klausner JS. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult dogs from private US veterinary practices. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2006;4(2):177–86.
Gershman KA, Sacks JJ, Wright JC. Which dogs bite? A case-control study of risk factors. Pediatrics. 1994;93(6):913.
Cornelissen JMR, Hopster H. Dog bites in The Netherlands: a study of victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors to support evaluation of breed specific legislation. Vet J. 2010;186(3):292–8.
O'Sullivan E, Jones B, O’Sullivan K, Hanlon A. Characteristics of 234 dog bite incidents in Ireland during 2004 and 2005. Vet Rec. 2008;163(2):37.
Svartberg K, Forkman B. Personality traits in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2002;79(2):133–55.
Bamberger M, Houpt KA. Signalment factors, comorbidity, and trends in behavior diagnoses in dogs: 1,644 cases (1991–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;229(10):1591–601.
Lund JD, Agger JF, Vestergaard KS: Reported behaviour problems in pet dogs in Denmark: age distribution and influence of breed and gender. Prev Vet Med 1996,28(1):33–48.
Lambert K, Coe J, Niel L, Dewey C, Sargeant JM. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of dogs surrendered for dog-related and owner-related reasons. Prev Vet Med. 2015;118(1):148–60.
Diesel G, Brodbelt D, Pfeiffer DU. Characteristics of relinquished dogs and their owners at 14 rehoming centers in the United Kingdom. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2009;13(1):15–30.
Casey RA, Loftus B, Bolster C, Richards GJ, Blackwell EJ. Human directed aggression in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): occurrence in different contexts and risk factors. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2013.
Overall KL, Love M. Dog bites to humans—demography, epidemiology, injury, and risk. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218(12):1923–34.
Saetre P. The genetic contribution to canine personality. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5(3):240.
Svartberg K. Breed-typical behaviour in dogs—historical remnants or recent constructs? Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2006;96(3):293–313.
Robinson NJ, Dean RS, Cobb M, Brennan ML. Factors influencing common diagnoses made during first-opinion small-animal consultations in the United Kingdom. Prev Vet Med. 2016;131:87–94.