The Kennel Club. Breed registration statistics: The Kennel Club Limited; 2021 [Available from: https://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/media-centre/breed-registration-statistics/.
Duckett S. High-maintenance French bulldogs: why we love them: The Times and The Sunday Times; 2018 [Available from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/high-maintenance-french-bulldogs-whywe-love-them-5q020h3cp.
Moody O. Beware French bulldogs with puppy eyes: The Times and Sunday Times; 2018 [Available from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/beware-french-bulldogs-with-puppy-eyes-q0s0s68hp.
Urwin R, Forster K. Breeders cash in as demand for dogs drives up cost of puppies: The Times and Sunday Times; 2020 [Available from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/breeders-cash-in-as-demand-for-dogs-drives-up-cost-of-puppies-trq9sqdtr.
BWG. The Brachycephalic Working Group: The Brachycephalic Working Group; 2021 [Available from: http://www.ukbwg.org.uk/?page_id=96.
Packer RMA, O’Neill DG, Fletcher F, Farnworth MJ. Great expectations, inconvenient truths, and the paradoxes of the dog-owner relationship for owners of brachycephalic dogs. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(7):e0219918.
Packer RM, O’Neill DG, Fletcher F, Farnworth MJ. Come for the looks, stay for the personality? A mixed methods investigation of reacquisition and owner recommendation of Bulldogs, French Bulldogs and Pugs. Plos one. 2020;15(8):e0237276.
WHO. Genes and human diseases: World Health Organisation; 2021 [Available from: https://www.who.int/genomics/public/geneticdiseases/en/.
Werner EE, Smith RS. Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press; 1992.
Pegram C, Woolley C, Brodbelt DC, Church DB, O’Neill DG. Disorder predispositions and protections of Labrador Retrievers in the UK. Scientific Reports. 2021;11(1):13988.
Gough A, Thomas A, O’Neill D. Breed Predispositions to Disease in Dogs and Cats. 3rd ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2018. 398 p.
The Kennel Club. Breed Information Centre: The Kennel Club Limited; 2021 [Available from: https://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/search/breeds-a-to-z.
Liu N-C, Sargan DR, Adams VJ, Ladlow JF. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0130741.
O’Neill DG, Jackson C, Guy JH, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, et al. Epidemiological associations between brachycephaly and upper respiratory tract disorders in dogs attending veterinary practices in England. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2015;2(1):10.
O’Neill D, Lee MM, Brodbelt DC, Church DB, Sanchez RF. Corneal ulcerative disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in England: epidemiology and clinical management. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2017;4(1):5.
Mazzucchelli S, Vaillant MD, Wéverberg F, Arnold-Tavernier H, Honegger N, Payen G, et al. Retrospective study of 155 cases of prolapse of the nictitating membrane gland in dogs. Vet Record. 2012;170(17):443.
Fernández-Parra R, Pey P, Zilberstein L, Malvè M. Use of computational fluid dynamics to compare upper airway pressures and airflow resistance in brachycephalic, mesocephalic, and dolichocephalic dogs. Vet J. 2019;253:105392.
Wyatt SE, Lafuente P, Ter Haar G, Packer RMA, Smith H, De Decker S. Gait analysis in French bulldogs with and without vertebral kyphosis. Vet J. 2019;244:45–50.
Ryan R, Gutierrez-Quintana R, De Haar GtDecker S. Relationship between breed, hemivertebra subtype, and kyphosis in apparently neurologically normal French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs, and Pugs. Am J Vet Res. 2019;80(2):189–94.
O’Neill DG, O’Sullivan AM, Manson EA, Church DB, Boag AK, McGreevy PD, et al. Canine dystocia in 50 UK first-opinion emergency-care veterinary practices: prevalence and risk factors. Vet Record. 2017;181(4).
Sanchez Villamil C, Phillips ASJ, Pegram CL, O’Neill DG, Meeson RL. Impact of breed on canine humeral condylar fracture configuration, surgical management, and outcome. Vet Surg. 2020;49(4):639–47.
O’Neill DG, Meeson RL, Sheridan A, Church DB, Brodbelt DC. The epidemiology of patellar luxation in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2016;3(1):1–12.
Paterson S. Intertrigo in the dog: aetiology, clinical signs and therapy. Companion Animal. 2017;22(2):72–7.
Vasiadou C, Papazoglou L. Surgical management of screw tail and tail fold pyoderma in dogs. J Hellenic Vet Med Soc. 2016;67(4):205–10.
O’Neill DG, Turgoose E, Church DB, Brodbelt DC, Hendricks A. Juvenile-onset and adult-onset demodicosis in dogs in the UK: prevalence and breed associations. J Small Anim Pract. 2019;61(1):32–41.
Summers JF, O’Neill DG, Church D, Collins L, Sargan D, Brodbelt DC. Health-related welfare prioritisation of canine disorders using electronic health records in primary care practice in the UK. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15(1):163.
Pegram C, Wonham K, Brodbelt DC, Church DB, O’Neill DG. Staffordshire Bull Terriers in the UK: their disorder predispositions and protections. Canine Med Genet. 2020;7(1):13.
The Kennel Club. Breed health and conservation plans (BHCPs): The Kennel Club Limited; 2021 [Available from: https://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/health/breed-health-and-conservation-plans/.
O’Neill DG, James H, Brodbelt DC, Church DB, Pegram C. Prevalence of commonly diagnosed disorders in UK dogs under primary veterinary care: results and applications. BMC Vet Res. 2021;17(1):69.
VetCompass. VetCompass Programme London: RVC Electronic Media Unit; 2021 [Available from: http://www.rvc.ac.uk/VetCOMPASS/.
SAVSNET. SAVSNET: University of Liverpool; 2021 [Available from: https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/savsnet/.
PETscan. PETscan: Utrecht University; 2021 [Available from: https://www.uu.nl/en/organisation/veterinary-service-and-cooperation/patientcare-uvcu/the-companion-animals-genetics-expertise-centre/projects-and-services/petscan.
VetCompass Australia. VetCompass Australia Sydney: The University of Sydney; 2021 [Available from: http://www.vetcompass.com.au/.
O’Neill D, Church D, McGreevy P, Thomson P, Brodbelt D. Approaches to canine health surveillance. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2014;1(1):2.
The VeNom Coding Group. VeNom Veterinary Nomenclature: VeNom Coding Group; 2021 [Available from: http://venomcoding.org.
Kirkwood BR, Sterne JAC. Essential Medical Statistics. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2003.
Piccininni M, Konigorski S, Rohmann JL, Kurth T. Directed Acyclic Graphs and causal thinking in clinical risk prediction modeling. arXiv preprint arXiv:200209414. 2020.
Vineis P, Illari P, Russo F. Causality in cancer research: a journey through models in molecular epidemiology and their philosophical interpretation. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2017;14(1):7.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S, Sturdivant RX. Applied Logistic Regression. 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley; 2013.
Dohoo I, Martin W, Stryhn H. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research. 2nd ed. Charlottetown: VER Inc; 2009.
O’Neill DG, Pegram C, Crocker P, Brodbelt DC, Church DB, Packer RMA. Unravelling the health status of brachycephalic dogs in the UK using multivariable analysis. Scientific Reports. 2020;10(1):17251.
Desquilbet L. Enhancing Clinical Decision-Making: Challenges of making decisions on the basis of significant statistical associations. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2020;256(2):187–93.
Voelkl B, Würbel H, Krzywinski M, Altman N. The standardization fallacy. Nature Methods. 2021;18(1):5–7.
O’Neill DG, Baral L, Church DB, Brodbelt DC, Packer RMA. Demography and disorders of the French Bulldog population under primary veterinary care in the UK in 2013. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2018;5(1):3.
Niskanen JE, Reunanen V, Salonen M, Bannasch D, Lappalainen AK, Lohi H, et al. Canine DVL2 variant contributes to brachycephalic phenotype and caudal vertebral anomalies. Human Genetics. 2021.
Bertram S, ter Haar G, De Decker S. Congenital malformations of the lumbosacral vertebral column are common in neurologically normal French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs, and Pugs, with breed-specific differences. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2019;60(4):400–8.
The Kennel Club. Breed Watch: The Kennel Club,; 2021 [Available from: https://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/services/public/breed/watch/Default.aspx.
Nissen SB, Magidson T, Gross K, Bergstrom CT. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts. Elife. 2016;5:e21451.
BWG. Brachycephalic Working Group (BWG) - Consensus Statements: Brachycephalic Working Group,; 2021 [Available from: http://www.ukbwg.org.uk/?page_id=513.
Dogs Trust. Puppy Smuggling - When will this cruel trade end?: Dogs Trust,; 2019 [Available from: https://www.dogstrust.org.uk/puppy-smuggling/111018_puppy%20smuggling%202018_final.pdf.
Packer R, O’Neill D, editors. Health and welfare of brachycephalic (flat-faced) companion animals: a complete guide for veterinary and animal professionals. 1st ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021.
Larson G, Karlsson EK, Perri A, Webster MT, Ho SYW, Peters J, et al. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2012;109(23):8878-83.
Galibert F, Quignon P, Hitte C, André C. Toward understanding dog evolutionary and domestication history. Comptes Rendus Biol. 2011;334(3):190–6.
Worboys M, Strange J-M, Pemberton N. The invention of the modern dog: breed and blood in Victorian Britain. 1st ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2018.
Arman K. A new direction for kennel club regulations and breed standards. Can Vet J. 2007;49:953–65.
Jansson M, Laikre L. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health. J Anim Breed Genet. 2013.
Bateson P. Independent inquiry into dog breeding Cambridge: University of Cambridge; 2010 [Reports]. Available from: https://dogwellnet.com/files/file/308-independent-inquiry-into-dog-breeding-2010-patrick-bateson/.
Packer RMA, Hendricks A, Volk HA, Shihab NK, Burn CC. How long and low can you go? Effect of conformation on the risk of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion in domestic dogs. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(7):e69650.
Packer RMA, Hendricks A, Burn CC. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: Corneal ulceration. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5):1–16.
The Kennel Club. Breed standards: The Kennel Club; 2021 [Available from: https://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/activities/dog-showing/breed-standards/.
Sartorius N. The meanings of health and its promotion. Croat Med J. 2006;47(4):662–4.
Asher L, Diesel G, Summers JF, McGreevy PD, Collins LM. Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 1: disorders related to breed standards. Vet J. 2009;182(3):402–11.
Haimel G, Dupré G. Brachycephalic airway syndrome: a comparative study between pugs and French bulldogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2015;56(12):714–9.
Packer R, Hendricks A, Burn C. Do dog owners perceive the clinical signs related to conformational inherited disorders as’ normal’for the breed? A potential constraint to improving canine welfare. Animal Welfare. 2012;21(1):81.
Liu N-C, Adams VJ, Kalmar L, Ladlow JF, Sargan DR. Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography Characterizes Upper Airway Obstruction in 3 Brachycephalic Breeds of Dogs. J Vet Internal Med. 2016;30(3):853–65.
Ekenstedt KJ, Crosse KR, Risselada M. Canine Brachycephaly: Anatomy, Pathology, Genetics and Welfare. J Comparative Pathol. 2020;176:109–15.
Liu N-C, Troconis EL, Kalmar L, Price DJ, Wright HE, Adams VJ, et al. Conformational risk factors of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0181928.
Packer R, Murphy D, Farnworth M. Purchasing popular purebreds: investigating the influence of breed-type on the pre-purchase motivations and behaviour of dog owners. Anim Welfare. 2017;26:191–201.
Ravn-Mølby E-M, Sindahl L, Nielsen SS, Bruun CS, Sandøe P, Fredholm M. Breeding French bulldogs so that they breathe well—A long way to go. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(12):e0226280.
Boyd C, Jarvis S, McGreevy PD, Heath S, Church DB, Brodbelt DC, et al. Mortality resulting from undesirable behaviours in dogs aged under three years attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Anim Welfare. 2018;27(3):251–62.
Packer RMA, Hendricks A, Tivers MS, Burn CC. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(10):e0137496.
The Kennel Club. The Kennel Club and University of Cambridge Respiratory Function Grading Scheme: The Kennel Club Limited; 2021 [Available from: https://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/health-and-dog-care/health/getting-started-with-health-testing-and-screening/respiratory-function-grading-scheme/.
The French Bulldog Club of England. French Bulldog Club of England 2021 [Available from: http://www.frenchbulldogclubofengland.org.uk/.
Ollivier FJ, Gilger BC, Barrie KP, Kallberg ME, Plummer CE, O’Reilly S, et al. Proteinases of the cornea and preocular tear film. Vet Ophthalmol. 2007;10(4):199–206.
Ledbetter EC, Gilger BC. Diseases and Surgery of the Canine Cornea and Sclera. In: Gelatt KN, C. GB, J. KT, editors. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2. 5th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013. p. 976–1049.
Rooney NJ, Sargan DR. Welfare concerns associated with pedigree dog breeding in the UK. Anim Welfare. 2010;19:133–40.
Iwashita H, Wakaiki S, Kazama Y, Saito A. Breed prevalence of canine ulcerative keratitis according to depth of corneal involvement. Vet Ophthalmol. 2020;23(5):849–55.
Dawson C, Naranjo C, Sanchez-Maldonado B, Fricker GV, Linn‐Pearl RN, Escanilla N, et al. Immediate effects of diamond burr debridement in patients with spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects, light and electron microscopic evaluation. Vet Ophthalmol. 2015:1–5.
Gervais KJ, Pirie CG, Ledbetter EC, Pizzirani S. Acute primary canine herpesvirus-1 dendritic ulcerative keratitis in an adult dog. Vet Ophthalmol. 2012;15(2):133–8.
Read RA, Broun HC. Entropion correction in dogs and cats using a combination Hotz–Celsus and lateral eyelid wedge resection: results in 311 eyes. Vet Ophthalmol. 2007;10(1):6–11.
Krecny M, Tichy A, Rushton J, Nell B. A retrospective survey of ocular abnormalities in pugs: 130 cases. J Small Anim Pract. 2015;56(2):96–102.
Sanchez RF, Innocent G, Mould J, Billson FM. Canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: disease trends in a review of 229 cases. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48(4):211–7.
Sansom J, Blunden T. Calcareous degeneration of the canine cornea. Vet Ophthalmol. 2010;13(4):238–43.
Paulsen ME, Kass PH. Traumatic corneal laceration with associated lens capsule disruption: a retrospective study of 77 clinical cases from 1999 to 2009. Vet Ophthalmol. 2012;15(6):355–68.
Dawson C, Sanchez RF. A prospective study of the prevalence of corneal surface disease in dogs receiving prophylactic topical lubrication under general anesthesia. Vet Ophthalmol. 2016;19(2):124–9.
Tolar EL, Hendrix DVH, Rohrbach BW, Plummer CE, Brooks DE, Gelatt KN. Evaluation of clinical characteristics and bacterial isolates in dogs with bacterial keratitis: 97 cases (1993–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228(1):80–5.
Kalra MG, Higgins KE, Kinney BS. Intertrigo and secondary skin infections. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(7):569–73.
Banovic F, Strzok E. Skin Fold Dermatitis (Intertrigo) in Dogs. Today’s Veterinary Practice. 2019;November/December 2019(https://todaysveterinarypractice.com/skin-fold-dermatitis-intertrigo-in-dogs/).
Knight SM, Radlinsky MG, Cornell KK, Schmiedt CW. Postoperative complications associated with caudectomy in brachycephalic dogs with ingrown tails. J Am Anim Hospital Assoc. 2013;49(4):237–42.
McGreevy PD, Nicholas FW. Some practical solutions to welfare problems in dog breeding. Anim Welfare. 1999;8:329–41.
Greenland S. Multiple comparisons and association selection in general epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37(3):430–4.
Abdi H. Bonferroni and Šidák corrections for multiple comparisons. In: Salkind NJ, editor. Encyclopedia Of Measurement And Statistics. 3. Thousand Oaks; London: Sage; 2007. p. 103–7.
Gelman A, Hill J, Yajima M. Why we (usually) don’t have to worry about multiple comparisons. J Res Educ Effect. 2012;5(2):189–211.
Bosco JLF, Silliman RA, Thwin SS, Geiger AM, Buist DSM, Prout MN, et al. A most stubborn bias: no adjustment method fully resolves confounding by indication in observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63(1):64–74.